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Comparison between multi-constellation ambiguity fixed PPP and RTK for maritime precise navigation

In order to achieve high-accuracy positioning, either Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) or Precise Point Positioning (PPP) techniques can be used.

01 Jun 2015
Javier Tegedor, Xianglin Liu, Ole Ørpen, Niels Treffers, Matthew Goode, Ola Øvstedal


While RTK normally delivers higher accuracy with shorter convergence times, PPP has been an attractive technology for maritime applications, as it delivers uniform positioning performance without the direct need of a nearby reference station. Traditional PPP has been based on ambiguity-float solutions using GPS and Glonass constellations. However, the addition of new satellite systems, such as Galileo and BeiDou, and the possibility of fixing integer carrier-phase ambiguities (PPP-AR) allow to increase PPP accuracy. In this article, a performance assessment has been done between RTK, PPP and PPP-AR, using GNSS data collected from two antennas installed on a ferry navigating in Oslo (Norway). RTK solutions have been generated using short, medium and long baselines (up to 290 km). For the generation of PPP-AR solutions,
Uncalibrated Hardware Delays (UHDs) for GPS, Galileo and BeiDou have been estimated using reference stations in Oslo and Onsala. The performance of RTK and multi-constellation PPP and PPP-AR are presented.


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